Generally speaking, the smaller the facility is, the more the family environment. The smaller facility tries to do anything possible to better the quality of life of its residents, to get them involved in a fulfilling way. For example, dining rooms of a facility can be very quiet, little or no conversation among the diners. In a smaller facility, caregivers will typically eat with the residents and interact with each, often starting conversations (or intervene when snarky comments, bickering and barbs inadvertently crop up).
Both types of facilities have caregivers. In a small setting, the caregivers are right there; in a larger facility, you have to push a button and wait for someone to come.
In a larger facility, doctors or licensed nurses are on 24/7; family can be more disconnected from their loved one since it is a larger, theoretically, more robust environment. In a larger facility you may find other amenities (such as a swimming pool, a large game room, exercise facilities) as well as an activity director (full or part-time), who may offer programs that appeal to the resident seniors or plan events outside the facility (i.e., field trips). Larger facilities have a SNIF component. They also offer a broader choice of food options at each meal and a more varied menu.